For a complete list of Dr. Heikenfeld's > 300 publications and presentations, including prior work in electroluminescence, please click here to download Dr. Heikenfeld's vitae.

A partial list of articles relating to our research is given below:


  • Jajack, A., Brothers, M., Kasting, G., Heikenfeld, J.(2018). Enhancing glucose flux into sweat by increasing paracellular permeability of the sweat gland. PLOS ONE, 13(7): e0200009. [pdf]
  • Twine, N., Norton, R., Brothers, M., Hauke, A., Gomez, E., Heikenfeld, J.(2018). Open nanofluidic films with rapid transport and no analyte exchange for ultra-low sample volumes. Lab on a Chip, Advance Article. doi:10.1039/c8lc00186c. [pdf]
  • Simmers, P., Yuan, Y., Sonner, Z., Heikenfeld, J.(2018). Membrane isolation of repeated-use sweat stimulants for mitigating both direct dermal contact and sweat dilution. Biomicrofluidics, 12, 034101. doi:10.1063/ [pdf]
  • Heikenfeld, J., Jajack, A., Rogers, J., Gutruf, P., Tian, L., Pan, T., Li, R., Khine, M., Kim, J., Wang, J., Kim, J. (2018). Wearable sensors: modalities, challenges, and prospects. Lab on a Chip, 18, 217-248. doi: 10.1039/c7lc00914c [pdf]


  • Simmers, P., Li, S.K., Kasting, G., Heikenfeld, J. (2017). Prolonged and localized sweat stimulation by iontophoretic delivery of the slowly-metabolized cholinergic agent carbachol. Journal of Dermatological Science, 89, 40-51. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2017.10.013 [pdf]
  • Sonner, Z., Wilder, E., Gaillard, T., Kasting, G., Heikenfeld, J. (2017). Integrated sudomotor axon reflex sweat stimulation for continuous sweat analyte analysis with individuals at rest. Lab on a Chip, 17, 2531-2684. doi:10.1039/C7LC90077E [pdf]
  • Hauke, A., Kumar, L.S., Kim, M.Y., Pegan, J., Khine, M., Li, H.,Plaxco, K.W., Heikenfeld, J. (2017). Superwetting and aptamer functionalized shrink-induced high surface area electrochemical sensors. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 94(March), 438-442. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2017.03.024 [pdf]
  • Eaker,C, Joshipura, I, Maxwell, L, Heikenfeld, J, Dickey, M. Electrowetting without external voltage using paint-on electrodes. Lab on a Chip, 2017, 17, 1069. doi: 10.1039/c6lc01500j. [pdf]
  • Diebold, A , Watson, A, Holcomb, S, Tabor, C, Mast, D, Dickey, M., & Heikenfeld, J. Electrowetting-actuated liquid metal for RF applications. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 27. doi: 10.1088/1361-6439/aa556a. [pdf]
  • Ventura, S. A., Heikenfeld, J., Brooks, T., Esfandiari, L., Boyce, S., Park, Y., & Kasting, G. B. Cortisol extraction through human skin by reverse iontophoresis. Bioelectrochemistry, 114, 54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.bioelechem.2016.12.004. [pdf]


  • Holcomb, S., Brothers, M., Diebold, A., Thatcher, W., Mast, D., Tabor, C., & Heikenfeld, J. Oxide-Free Actuations of Gallium Liquid Metal Alloys Enabled by Novel Acidfied Siloxane Oils. Langmuir, 32, 12656-12663. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03501. [pdf]
  • Peng, R., Sonner, Z., Hauke, A., Wilder, E., Kasting, G., Gaillard, T., Swaille, D., Sherman, F., Mao, X., Hagen, J., Murdock, R., Heikenfeld, J.; A new oil/membrane approach for integrated sweat sampling and sensing: sample volumes reduced from μL's to nL's and reduction of analyte contamination from skin. Lab Chip. 2016. 16. 4415-4423. doi:10.1039/C6LC01013J. [pdf]
  • Schultz P, Heikenfeld J; Enhanced optical discrimination system based on switchable retroreflective films. Opt. Eng. 0001;55(4):045101. doi:10.1117/1.OE.55.4.045101. [pdf]
  • Kumar, L. S., Wang, X., Hagen, J., Naik, R., Papautsky, I., & Heikenfeld, J. "Label free nano-aptasensor for interleukin-6 in protein-dilute bio fluids such as sweat." Analytical Methods. (2016).
  • Heikenfeld, J., "Non-invasive Analyte Access and Sensing through Eccrine Sweat: Challenges and Outlook circa 2016". Electroanalysis. doi: 10.1002/elan.201600018 (2016). [pdf]
  • Heikenfeld, J., "Bioanalytical devices: Technological leap for sweat sensing," Nature 529, 475-476, doi:10.1038/529475a (2016). [pdf]


  • Cumby, B. L., Mast, D. B., Tabor, C. E., Dickey, M. D., & Heikenfeld, J. (2015). Robust pressure-actuated liquid metal devices showing reconfigurable electromagnetic effects at GHz frequencies. Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, 63(10), 3122-3130. [pdf]
  • S. Mukherjee, W. L. Hsieh, N. Smith, M. Goulding, and J. Heikenfeld, "Electrokinetic pixels with biprimary inks for color displays and color-temperature-tunable smart windows," Appl. Opt. 54, 5603-5609 (2015) [pdf]
  • Z. Sonner, E. Wilder, J. Heikenfeld, G. Kasting, F. Beyette, D. Swaile, F. Sherman, J. Joyce, J. Hagen and N. Kelley-Loughnane, "The microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland, including biomarker partitioning, transport, and biosensing implications", Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 031301. DOI: 10.1063/1.4921039 [pdf]
  • W.-L. Hsieh, K.-C. Chen and J. Heikenfeld, "Sophisticated oil film geometries through incomplete electrical dewetting by feedback control and Fourier construction", Lab on a Chip, 2015. DOI: 10.1039/C5LC00274E [pdf]


  • Russell, A. C., Hsieh, W. L., Chen, K. C., & Heikenfeld, J. "Experimental and Numerical Insights into Isotropic Spreading and Deterministic Dewetting of Dielectrowetted Films." Langmuir 31.1 (2014): 637-642. [pdf]
  • Rose, D.P.; Ratterman, M.; Griffin, D.K.; Hou, L.; Kelley-Loughnane, N.; Naik, R.R.; Hagen, J.A.; Papautsky, I.; Heikenfeld, J., "Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes," Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on , vol.PP, no.99, pp.1,1 doi: 10.1109/TBME.2014.2369991. [pdf]
  • J. Heikenfeld, "Let Them See You Sweat", IEEE Spectrum, November Issue, 2014. [pdf]
  • Mukherjee S., Smith N., Goulding M., Topping C., Norman S., Liu Q., Kramer L., Kularatne S., Heikenfeld J. (2014), A first demonstration and analysis of the biprimary color system for reflective displays, Jnl Soc Info Display, 22; pages 106–114, doi: 10.1002/jsid.225. [pdf]
  • A. Schultz, I Papautsky and J. Heikenfeld "Investigation of Laplace-barriers for Arrayed Electrowetting Lab-on-a-chip", Langmuir (2014). [pdf]
  • A. Russell, E. Kreit and J. Heikenfeld " Scaling Dielectrowetting Optical Shutters to Higher Resolution: Microfluidic and Optical Implications" Langmuir (2014). [pdf]


  • R. Zhao, B. Cumby, A. Russell, and J. Heikenfeld, " Large area and low power dielectrowetting optical shutter with local deterministic fluid film breakup",Applied Physics Letters, 103, 223510 (2013). [pdf]
  • M. Hagedon, J. Heikenfeld, " A hybrid of microreplication and mask-less photolithography for creating dual porosity and textured surface membranes", JMM, Vol. 23, pp.117005, 2013. [pdf]
  • J. Heikenfeld, Flexing and Stretching, P30, Proc. SID Mar./Apr. 2013, Vol.29, No.2. [pdf]
  • Linlin Hou ,  Joshua Hagen ,  Xiao Wang ,  Ian Papautsky ,  Rajesh Naik ,  Nancy Kelley-Loughnane and Jason Heikenfeld, "Artificial microfluidic skin for in vitro perspiration simulation and testing", Lab Chip, 2013, Advance Article, 10.1039/C3LC41231H. [pdf]
  • A. Schultz, S. Chevalliot, S. Kuiper, J. Heikenfeld, "Detailed Analysis of Defect Reduction in Electrowetting Dielectrics Through a Two-Layer ‘Barrier’ Approach", Thin Solid Films, Available online 20 March 2013, ISSN 0040-6090, 10.1016/j.tsf.2013.03.008. [pdf]

Supplemental Videos:  Video 1 , Video 2 , Video 3 , Video 4 , Video 5 Multilayer Excel calculator


  • Ananda Banerjee ,  Yuguang Liu ,  Jason Heikenfeld and Ian Papautsky, "Deterministic splitting of fluid volumes in electrowetting microfluidics", Lab Chip, vol. 12, pp. 5138-5141, 2012. [pdf]
  • J. Heikenfeld, "Display Week 2012 Review: e-Paper", Information Display  Vol. 28, Nos. 7 & 8, pp 6-9 2012. [pdf]
  • M. Hagedon, S. Yang, A. Russell & J. Heikenfeld, "Bright e-Paper by transport of ink through a white electrofluidic imaging film", Nature Communications 3, 1173 (2012). [pdf]
  • Brad L. Cumby, Gerard J. Hayes, Michael D. Dickey, Ryan S. Justice, Christopher E. Tabor, and Jason C. Heikenfeld, "Reconfigurable liquid metal circuits by Laplace pressure shaping", Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 174102 (2012). [pdf]
  • Eric Kreit, Lydia M. Mäthger, Roger T. Hanlon, Patrick B. Dennis, Rajesh R. Naik, Eric Forsythe and Jason Heikenfeld, "Biological versus electronic adaptive coloration: how can one inform the other?", J. R. Soc. Interface (2012). [pdf]
  • P. Schultz, B. Cumby, and J. Heikenfeld, "Investigation of five types of switchable retroreflector films for enhanced visible and infrared conspicuity applications," Appl. Opt. 51, 3744-3754 (2012) . [pdf]
  • A. Banerjee, E. Kreit, Y. Liu, J. Heikenfeld and I. Papautsky, "Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels," Lab Chip, vol. 12, pp. 758-764, 2012. [pdf]. 
  • J. H. Noh, J. Noh, E. Kreit, J. Heikenfeld and P. D. Rack, Toward Active-matrix Lab-on-a-chip: Programmable Electrofluidic Control Enabled by Arrayed Oxide Thin Film Transistors, Lab on a Chip, vol.12, pp. 353-360, 2012. [pdf]


  • S. Chevalliot, S. Kuiper and J.Heikenfeld, Experimental validation of the invariance of electrowetting contact angle saturation, J. Adhesion Sci. Technol, 2011. [pdf]
  • E. Kreit, B.M.Mognetti, J.M. Yeomans and J. Heikenfeld, Partial-post Laplace Barriers for Virtual Confinement, Stable Displacement, and >5 cm S-1 Electrowetting Transport, Lab on a Chip, vol.11, pp.4221-4227, 2011 [pdf]
  • S. Chevalliot, J. Heikenfeld, L. Clapp, A. Milarcik and S. Vilner, Analysis of Nonaqueous Electrowetting Fluids for Displays, Journal of Display Technology, vol.7, issue 12, 649-656, 2011. [pdf]
  • A. Schultz, J.Heikenfeld, H.S. Kang, and W. Cheng, 1000:1 Contrast Ratio Transmissive Electrowetting Displays, Journal of Display Technology, vol.7, issue 11, 583-585, 2011. [pdf]
  • J. Heikenfeld, Display Week 2011 Review: E-Papers, Infomation Display, vol.27, no.8, 2011. [pdf]
  • M. Hagedon, S.Yang, E. Kreit, and J. Heikenfeld, The Present Status of e-Paper and Unique Competitive Strengths for Electrofluidic Displays, Int. Disp. Manuf. Conf., 2011.
  • K. Dean, K. Zhou, S. Smith, B. Brollier, H. Atkuri, J. Rudolph, S. Yang, S. Chevalliot, E. Kreit, J. Heikenfeld, Electrofluidic Displays: Multi-Stability and Display Technology Progress, P111, Proc. SID 2011. [pdf]
  • S.Yang, J. Heikenfeld, E. Kreit, M. Hagedon, K. Dean, K. Zhou, S. Smith, B. Brollier, and J. Rudolph, Electrofluidic Displays: Fundamental Platforms and Unique Performance Attributes, Journal for the Society of Information Displays, Vol. 19, Issue 9, Sep. 2011. [pdf]
  • S. Yang, M. Hagedon, and J.Heikenfeld, Light Out-Coupling for Reflective Displays Simple Geometrical Model MATLAB Simulation and Experimental Validation, Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 7, Issue 9, July, 2011. [pdf]
  • M. Dhindsa, J. Heikenfeld, W. Weekamp, S. Kuiper, Electrowetting without Electrolysis on Self-Healing Dielectrics, Langmuir, Volume: 27, Issue: 9, pp 5665-5670, 2011. [pdf]
  • J.Heikenfeld, P. Drzaic, J.-S. Yeo, and Tim Koch, Review Paper: A critical review of the present and future prospects for electronic paper, Journal of the SID, vol.19, issue 2, 2011. [pdf]


  • M. Dhindsa, S.Kuiper, and J.Heikenfeld, Reliable and low-voltage electrowetting on thin Parylene films, Thin Solid Films, Dec.2010. [pdf]
  • E. Kreit, M. Dhindsa, S.Yang, M.Hagedon, K. Zhou, I. Papautsky, J. Heikenfeld, Laplace barriers for electrowetting thredsholding and virtual fluid confinement, Langmuir, Nov.1, 2010 [pdf]
  • S. Yang, K.Zhou, E. Kreit, J. Heikenfeld, High reflectivity electrofluidic pixels with zero-power grayscale operation, Applied Physics Letters, Vol.97, Issue,14, Oct.2010. [pdf]
  • Manjeet Dhindsa,Jason Heikenfeld, Seyeoul Kwon, Jungwon Park,Philip D.Rack and Ian Papautsky, Virtual electrowetting channels: electronic liquid transport with continuous channel functionality, Lab on a Chip, Vol.10, 832-836, 2010. [pdf]


  • L. Hou, J. Zhang, N.Smith, J. Yang and Jason Heikenfeld, A full description of a scalable microfabrication process for arrayed electrowetting microprisms, J. Micromech, Microeng., Vol.20. Issue1, Jan.2010. [pdf]
  • Murali Kilaru, Jia Yang and Jason Heikenfeld, Advanced Characterization of Electrowetting Retroreflectors, Optics Express, Vol.17, No.20, Sep.2009. [pdf]
  • Balaji Raj, Manjeet Dhindsa, Neil Smith, Robert Laughlin and Jason Heikenfeld, Ion and liquid dependent electrical breakdown of electrowetting dielectrics, Langmuir, Aug.13, 2009 [pdf]
  • N. Smith, L. Hou, J. Zhang, and J. Heikenfeld. J.Disp. Tech.: Fabrication and demonstration of electrowetting liquid lens arrays. [pdf]
  • J.Zhang, D.Van Meter, L,Hou, N.Smith, J.Yang, A.Stalcup, R.Laughlin, and J.Heikenfeld, Preparation and analysis of 1-Chloronaphthalene for highly refractive electrowetting optics, Langmuir, published, July.16,2009. [pdf]
  • K.Zhou, J.Heikenfeld, K.A.Dean,E.M.Howard and M.R.Johnson,A full description of a simple and scalable fabrication process for electrowetting display, J. Micromech.Microeng., Vol.19, Issue 6,2009. [pdf]
  • P. McManamon, E. Watson, P.Bos, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, and X. Huikei, A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical system, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol.97, No.6,pp.1078-1096, 2009 (invited). [pdf]
  • J.Heikenfeld, K.Zhou, E.Kreit, B. Raj, S.Yang, B.Sun, A.Milarcik, L.Clapp and R. Schwartz, Electrofluidic displays using Young-Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions, Nature Photonics, Vol.3, No.5, May,2009. [pdf]
  • J. Heikenfeld, Arrayed Electrowetting Optics: What Can't Be Done?, Optics and Photonics News, invited for publication in January 2009 issue.(invited) [pdf]
  • M.K. Kilaru, B.Cumby and J.Heikenfeld, Electrowetting retroreflectors: wide-spectrum and low-loss modulation between cornner-cube and scattering reflection, Appl.Phys.Lett, Vol.94, 2009. [pdf]
  • J.Park, S.Kwon, S.I. Jun, T.E. Mcknight, A.V.Melechko, M.L.Simpson, M.Dhindsa, J.Heikenfeld, and P.D. Rack, Active Matrix Thin Film Transistor Microelectrode Arrays Integrated with Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers, submitted to IEEE Electron. Dev.Lett., Vol.30,2009. [pdf]


  • Y.Lao, B. Sun, K. Zhou, and J. Heikenfeld, Ultra-High Transmission Electrowetting Displays Enabled by Integrated Reflectors, IEEE J. Display Tech., Vol.4, No.2, pp.120-122,2008. [pdf]
  • J. Heikenfeld, Electrowetting Optics on target for record optical performance, SPIE Newsletter, 19862, March, 2008 (invited). [pdf]
  • K.Zhou and J.Heikenfeld, Arrayed Electrowetting Microwells, Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol.92, 113515,2008 [pdf]
  • J.Heikenfeld and M. Dhindsa, Electrowetting on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Present Status and Prospects, J. of Adhesion Science and Technology, Vol.22, pp.319-334,2008 (invited). [pdf]
  • B. Sun, and J. heikenfeld, Observation and Optical Implications of Spinodal Dewetting in Electrowetting Displays, J. Micromech. Microeng., Vol.18, 025027, 2008. [pdf]


  • B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, W. Cheng, and J. Heikenfeld, Scalable Fabrication of Electrowetting Pixel Arrays with Self-Assembled Oil Dosing, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 91, 011106, 2007. [pdf]
  • K. Bhat, J. Heikenfeld, M. Agarwal, Y. Lvov, K. Varahramyan, Non-Woven Electrowetting Textiles, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 91, 024103, 2007. [pdf]
  • L. Hou, N. Smith, and J. Heikenfeld, Electrowetting Modulation of Any Flat Optical Film, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 90, 251114, 2007. [pdf]
  • M. K. Kilaru, G. Lin, J. E. Mark, and J. Heikenfeld, Strong Charge Trapping and Bistable Electrowetting on Nanocomposite Fluoropolymer:BaTiO3 Dielectrics, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 90, 212906, 2007. [pdf]
  • W. X. Li, J. Hagen, R. Jones, J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, Color tunable organic light emitting diodes using Eu complex doping, Solid-State Electronics, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 500-504, 2007. [pdf]


  • M. Dhindsa, N. Smith, J. Heikenfeld, J. Fowlkes, P.D. Rack, M. J. Doktycz, A. V. Melechko, and M. L. Simpson, Reversible Electrowetting of Vertically Aligned Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanofibers, Langmuir, Vol. 22, No. 21, pp. 9030-9034, 2006. [pdf]
  • W. X. Li, R. Jones, S. Allen, J. Heikenfeld, and A. J. Steckl, Maximizing Alq3 OLED internal and external efficiencies: charge balanced device structure and color conversion outcoupling lenses, IEEE Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 1-10, 2006. [pdf]
  • N. Smith, D. Abeysinghe, J. Heikenfeld, and J. W. Haus, Agile Wide-Angle Beam Steering with Electrowetting Microprisms, Optics Express, Vol. 14, No. 14, pp. 6557-6563, 2006. [pdf]
  • J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, D. Abeysinghe, A. J. Steckl, and J. W. Haus, Flat Electrowetting Optics, IEEE LEOS Newsletter, Vol. 20 (4), pp. 4-10, Aug. 2006 (invited). [pdf]
  • J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, High-transmission electrowetting light valves, Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 86, pp.151121, Apr. 2006. [pdf]


  • A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, and S. C. Allen, Light Wave Coupled Flat Panel Displays and Solid-State Lighting Using Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Materials, Invited Paper, IEEE JDT Vol.1 (1), pp. 157-166, Sept. 2005 (invited). [pdf]
  • J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, Intense Switchable Fluorescence in Light Wave Coupled Electrowetting Devices,Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 86, No. 1, 011105, 2005. [pdf]